Sequence Forest Activities

The flowcharts of the complete planning process is differentiate between office procedures and field operations. The task of the various procedures and operations among KPKKT, District Forest Office (DFO) and State Forest Department (SFO) are also identified. The flow chart depicting the procedures and operations are as shown in figure above. Each steps of the planning process are described as below. 

  1. 5-years Working Plan (KPKKT)
    From the 10 - year Forest Management Plan, the first and second 5 - Year Working Plan is then formulated.  This plan will actually cover a comprehensive plan covering all forestry planning activities, estimated cost covering administration, capital and production cost and also estimated net income for a given 5 year period.  This is in line with term and agreement spells out in the contract agreement between KPKKT and the Terengganu State Forestry Department.  This 5-year plan required endorsement from the State Forestry Department before due for implementation. 

  2. Annual Working Plan (KPKKT) 
    From the approved 5-Year Working Plan, the plan is further breakdown into Annual Working Plan. This Annual Working Plan consist of all set of forestry planning and silviculture activities that has to be prepared in advance before actual logging operation in the following year. The activities covers in the Annual Working Plan are as follows:

    • Survey and Marking Boundary
      While awaiting the result of the cutting regime from the SFO office, the external boundary of the compartment designated for harvesting is surveyed and marked on the ground.  The boundary demarcation exercise is carried out by KPKKT staff and supervised by DFO.  The external boundary determines the limit of the logging compartment.

    • Pre - Felling Inventory (KPKKT) and Cutting Regime (SFO)
      The Pre - Felling Inventory uses a 10% sampling intensity based on the systematic line plot design.  It is carried out 1 year before felling.  It objectives to obtain information on the stocking according to size class, topography, weeds and climber infestation.  The result is then used to determine the cutting option with a minimum of 45 cm dbh for Non - Dipterocarp and 50 cm dbh for Dipterocarp.  The cutting option so chosen are required to fulfilled certain criteria on the number of residual trees and the percentage of Dipterocarp in the residual stand. The State Forest Officer gives the cutting limit.  After receiving the cutting limit KPKKT will carry out the tree marking and supervised by the staff of the District Forest Office. 

    • Tree marking, Recording and Tagging
      The Tree Marking operation is a crucial and tedious one.  It will only commence once approval for the cutting option/regime has been obtained.  This operation is carried out by staff of KPKKT and supervised by DFO.  In the operation, selected individual trees are given a tag for identification purpose.  Its function is to identify between trees to be felled or removed and trees to be retained or protected. The trees to be felled or removed are trees having a diameter above the cutting limit, which is prescribed separately for Dipterocarp and Non-Dipterocarp and all trees within the specified width of the road alignment.  The trees to be retained or protected are trees seed trees and certain fruit trees for humans and animal consumption. All trees marked and tagged are recorded in the Tree Marking book.  In the recording, the diameters at breast height, species and expected number of logs as well as log quality from the bole are recorded.  The book will become a control document, to check against trees felled or removed by the logger.  The Tree Marking operation, thus need to be highly accurate, accounting for every trees to be felled to ensure that the harvesting operation goes uninterrupted.  In the Tree Marking procedure, the location of the tag on the bole of the tree serves as the intended direction of felling for the tree to be felled.  The direction of fall is directly opposite to the tag location.  

      The Tree Marking operation itself, which is systematically carried along fixed parallel strips, can be considered as a broad tree location operation.  Each tag has a number, and the trees to be felled along each strip are tagged serially.  Thus giving an indication of the rough location of the tree.  The tag numbers along each strip (only for every 50th tag) are then transferred to the Tree Marking map. The Map also shows the location of the Seed Trees to be retained. 

      Apart from the tagging operation, the seed trees and protected are given additional marking in the form of painted band.  The seed trees and protected trees are given two-ringed band and one ringed band of yellow paint of width 8 cm below the 1.3 m respectively.  The ringed band is an additional precaution to make the trees clearly visible to the logging operators so that they will avoid unintentionally damaging the trees and its surrounding site, which will impede its functional potential. 


    • Marking of protected areas
      Apart from the marking of protected trees, certain areas are also classified for protections which are prohibited for harvesting and they are:-
      - Riparian buffer and Areas with slope greater or equal to 40%

      The buffer is only meant for permanent water course and the width of the buffer is calculated based on the formula 7.6m + (0.6 + % minimum slope) or with a minimum of 20 m (for both sides or left and right of the permanent water course).  The riparian buffers are marked with a white band painted on the trees along the boundary of the buffer.

    • Preliminary Road Alignment
      The construction of forest road being the single most destructive forest harvesting operation required special attention in terms of planning.  KPKKT staff carries out the proposed road alignment of the main, secondary and access road.  The road alignment especially of the main and secondary road shall follow the ridges, avoid running too close to permanent watercourses and rock outcrop.  The proposed road are flagged and roughly mapped and submitted to the DFO together with a topographical map of scale 1:5000.  

    • Check Proposed Preliminary Road Alignment (Forest  Engineering Unit & DFO)
      The proposed preliminary road alignment is check for compliance and consistency with the Code of Best Practice for Harvesting in the Inland Forest of Peninsular Malaysia. The aligned road on the topographical map of 1:5000 is also checked against the guidelines as spelled out in the Forest Road Specification for Peninsular Malaysia (1999). The office checking is confined to the adherence to the planning requirement in deriving to the best alignment option. 

    • Field Check on Proposed Preliminary Road Alignment (Forest Engineering Unit.& DFO)
      The checking in the office would have given some tips as to what needs to be checked in the field.  Field checking will take the form of a 100% cruise walking along the flagged alignment.  Most important it is to establish the accuracy of the topographical details and also the roughly surveyed alignment as featured in the submitted map.  If the accuracy is acceptable and the best alignment option is taken to minimize damage to the stand and environment as seen in the field, then the road alignment can be approved. 

    • Approved road alignment (Forest .Engineering Unit)
      The field checks will result in agreeing on the proposed alignment and possibly changes to the alignment which will be decided during the field check and a final road alignment approved by the Forest Engineer.  The approved road alignment will form part of the Forest Harvesting Plan submission.

    • Harvest and Logging
      The field checks will result in agreeing on the proposed alignment and possibly changes to the alignment which will be decided during the field check and a final road alignment approved by the Forest Engineer.  The approved road alignment will form part of the Forest Harvesting Plan submission.

    • Forest Treatment - Enrichment Planting
      Gap planting is carried out for logged-over areas that are poorly stocked with natural regeneration. The seedlings of these preferred species  are planted along cleared lines under the canopy of the residual stand at spacing of 3 m x 10 m.

      The species that are planted include Shorea leprosula (meranti tembaga), S.parvifolia (meranti sarang punai), S.platyclados (meranti bukit), Anisoptera sp. (mersawa), Dryobalanops aromatica (kapur), Scaphium sp. (kembang semangkuk) and Dyera costulata (jelutong) and Calamus manan (rotan manau).

    • Forest Treatment - Nursery
      Gap planting is carried out for logged-over areas that are poorly stocked with natural regeneration. The seedlings of these preferred species  are planted along cleared lines under the canopy of the residual stand at spacing of 3 m x 10 m.

      The species that are planted include Shorea leprosula (meranti tembaga), S.parvifolia (meranti sarang punai), S.platyclados (meranti bukit), Anisoptera sp. (mersawa), Dryobalanops aromatica (kapur), Scaphium sp. (kembang semangkuk) and Dyera costulata (jelutong) and Calamus manan (rotan manau).
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